Unity and monosemanticity in translation

Translation is a unique phenomena characterized by unity. Despite the different approaches, in translation there are always several basic principles which are always used.

Translation – is an action of words and not a behavior of the language. Translator, being in the position of bilingual, works as monolingual person after he/she understood the text in one language and started transferring in another one.

The sense of the text – psychological and mental reality, with the help of which author of the message wants and tries to communicate, and which is perceived by receptor not only thanks to semantic and stylistic frame, but also thanks to general context.

In the whole translation we see from one side coded elements or fixed elements in equivalents of the target language, and from the other side, the original expressions, that were rephrased by the translator and who presents them in a free way. The aim of translation is the final identity of the sense and the equivalence of the form, preservation of the text meaning, where meaning is a synthesis of content and form.

If we are talking about freedom and accuracy in translation, here it is necessary to point out that we are not talking about contradictions, but about symbiosis. A good and successful translation – it is free (explanatory creation of the text) and accurate (transfer of message) translation of the information; unsuccessful translation – it is "free" (paraphrase) and “accurate” (transposition) restoration of the text.

One more very important parameter, the same for all translations, is a social character of the translated texts. Translator plays a role of intermediary in the chain of communication, and it gives him an important role, but sometimes it is the fact that depresses.

The translator develops, consciously or unconsciously, a certain attitude towards message in the text, and also towards the author of this message and to the target audience of this message - all these feelings influence the process of translation.

Finally, the translation as new edition of the text, and not as reorganization, has unique means – knowledge of the target language. Hence there is a need in advance to send the forces towards the language of source message, and also towards the language of translation and towards peculiarities of the sphere of knowledge, where text comes from. Actually it is the ideal variant, where translator has enough knowledge to form a new message. Otherwise (actually that happens in practice more often) in translation the defects come to the first plan and these defects should be removed asap.

Translator has always been, is and will be a kind of defender, generator and creator in his/her language at the same level as writer. And working with several languages, and moreover – working in several spheres, the input and the responsibility of the translator is even more noticeable and considerable than of a writer.

But the fact is that all the translations fall under the general basic principles and this fact should not diminish the importance of differences and peculiarities attributable to this or that type of translation, whether it is technical translation or translation of medical texts.

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