Dual character of translation

Initially in translation there are two opposite poles, original and translation and it supposes the dual character both of the process and of the results of work of translator and this duality becomes apparent in many different ways.

First of all, one should remember about subdivision into oral and written translation, and also about the subdivision of the latter one into translation of literature and of pragmatic texts.

In the first case the subdivision is done on the basis of written and oral speech, not limiting with the principles of translation, even if these principles are the same. Here was important the fact that the interpreting is done spontaneously and by its nature is given to customers in real conditions at the place where it is produced; interpreter – it is a privileged profession and it is difficult to analyze a result here, but you can observe the process. And in case with translation, because of its constancy, accuracy, distinguished character etc. this type of translation is more suitable for analysis of translation activity.

As for the second subdivision goes, even if in literature texts the expressive component prevails, and in pragmatic - informative, but it is here where the synthesis of form and content are the main characteristic of two types of texts. Even if in first ones you make an accent on the emotional aspect and in the second – on cognitive, here we will talk about two basic aspects of text, which make the whole and form the text essence. But on the other hand, it can be said for sure that in translation of literature the main attention should be paid to rhythm, and in pragmatic translation – terminology. Translation of poetry and technical translation – these are the two extremes of translator’s activity and its results, if we talk about accuracy and correctness of translation, about interpretation and decoding; we are talking about two extremes of the same environment.

Two other important categories of translation phenomena are different characteristics and needs of synchronous and diachronous translation, and also of the interlinguistic and intralinguistic.

Taking into account all the contradictions and similarities in translation processes it seems to me, that all the translations to some extend are the mixture of standard and non standard operations.

From one side – the coding repeating correspondence, from another one – original contextual equivalents. From one side – formulae, terms, decoding, from another – free text, interpretation. Translator is always in the condition of some pendulum, between two extremes, and a good translator is always in search for the correct movement, the needed rhythm.

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